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4 different ways of DC motor speed control

How to realize the control of DC motor?

The driver of Sani drive adopts integrated speed controller, which combines the advantages of DC motor and its electronic control. The controller parameters and operation mode can be adjusted through the motion manager. According to the required speed range, the rotor position is detected by digital or optional analog Hall sensor. In other words, the speed control settings can be configured with the motion manager through the programming adapter.

micro gear motor

For micro motors, there are a series of DC motor controllers on the market that can change the motor speed according to the supply voltage, including 12V DC motor speed controller, 24V DC motor speed controller, 6V DC motor speed controller, etc.

Speed regulation of DC motor is a useful characteristic of motor. By controlling the speed of the motor, the speed of the motor can be changed according to the need to achieve the required operation. Motor speed can be reduced and increased, but here we only introduce four methods of motor speed control.

According to the working principle of DC motor, its working principle includes four points

1. The speed of the motor is determined by the speed controller;

2. The speed of the motor is proportional to the supply voltage;

3. Motor speed is inversely proportional to armature voltage drop;

4. Due to the discovery of the magnetic field, the speed of the motor is inversely proportional to the magnetic flux.

Therefore, the speed of DC motor can be controlled in four ways

1) Add DC motor controller;

2) By changing the power supply voltage;

3) By changing the armature voltage and resistance;

4) By changing the flux and the current through the field winding.

Four ways of DC motor speed regulation

1. Add DC speed controllerA gearbox - also known as a gear reducer or reducer - is a set of gears that can be added to the motor to significantly reduce output speed and / or increase torque. Deceleration is determined by the transmission ratio and efficiency of the gearbox. Therefore, it plays the role of DC motor controller.

2. Voltage control method

Motors are characterized by a wide range of types, from fractional horsepower units for small household appliances to thousands of horsepower units for heavy industry. In fact, the speed of the motor also depends on its physical structure and power supply frequency. Regardless of the load, the speed of the motor is proportional to the supply voltage. Therefore, if the voltage decreases, the speed of the motor will decrease accordingly. Electrical engineers select motor speeds for each application, similar to specifying horsepower based on mechanical load.

3. Armature voltage control

This speed control method is only suitable for small motors. In this method, the excitation winding is supplied by a constant power supply. However, the armature winding is powered by a separate variable DC power supply. In this way, the speed of the DC motor can be controlled by controlling the armature resistance, so as to control the voltage drop on the armature. The method also uses a variable resistor in series with the armature. When the variable resistance reaches the minimum value, the armature resistance is normal and the armature voltage decreases; As the resistance increases, the voltage on the armature decreases. This in turn causes the motor speed to decrease. In this way, the motor speed can be lower than the normal range. However, due to the use of resistance in series with the armature, the armature control method leads to huge power loss.

4. Flow control method

In this method, the speed of the motor is changed by changing the flux produced by the field winding. Since the magnetic flux depends on the current flowing through the field winding, the magnetic flux can be changed by changing the current flowing through the field winding. This can be achieved by using a variable resistor in series with the field winding resistor.

Initially, when the variable resistor is held at its minimum position, the rated current flows through the field winding due to the rated supply voltage, so the speed remains normal. When the resistance decreases gradually, the current through the excitation winding increases. This in turn increases the flux produced. As a result, the speed of the motor decreases below its normal value. This method is helpful to speed control of DC motor, but flux linkage control method will affect commutation.


The above is only one of the main ways of DC motor speed regulation. After comparison, you may know that it is wise to add a micro gearbox as the DC motor controller to achieve the desired speed, and select the DC motor with the appropriate voltage supply, which is a convenient and cost-effective method.


Contact: Jack He

Phone: +86(0)18088846213(微信同号)

Tel: +86-0760-88898029

Email: jackhe_sani@163.com

Add: BuildingA 125 WeiMin Road,DongSheng Town,ZhongShan city,GuangDong Province,China

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